Summary The Pope and Mussolini ↠ E-book, or Kindle E-pub



10 thoughts on “The Pope and Mussolini

  1. says:

    Kertzer shows how the relationship between Pope Pius XI and Benito Mussolini played into the rise of Fascism and anti Semiti

  2. says:

    The result of David Kertzer’s research is that there is no longer reason to wonder about the Vatican’s position regarding Mussolin

  3. says:

    The Pope and Mussolini by David Kertzer won the Pulitzer Prize for Biography in 2014To be clear this book does not really fit cleanly into the biography genre it is history There are no backstories of Mussolini or Pope Pius XI as children Rather the story covers the years from 1922 to 1944 with the Pope and Mussolini and fascism as

  4. says:

    I highly recommend this book for serious history buffs who read a lot of nonfiction and enjoy a high level of detail about the many people who played a part in historical events I also recommend it for casual readers of nonfiction who have a strong interest in this subject and time period I say that with the warning that there are a lot of people involved and it can be difficult to keep track of them and their roles a

  5. says:

    Italian history and the rise of fascism is not a part of history with which I am familiar Author Kertzer’s massive research reveals the manipulations Pope Pius XI and Mussolini engaged in to bring Italy into WWII on the side of the Nazis Th

  6. says:

    In The Pope and Mussolini David Kertzer informs the reader that while the deceased Pius XI was lying state in February 1939 Benito Mussolini chose to visit his mistress Clara Petacci and made love to her not once

  7. says:

    April 28 20202nd time through this one for a book group discussionHighly readable and informativeAugust 8 2015I won this book through a Goodreads GiveawayI knew nothing about this subject at all but had recently done a concentrated read on WWI so this book picked up close to the end of WWII'm not Catholic so don't know

  8. says:

    My first impression of this book surprised me because I felt a glimmer of sympathy for Mussolini for having to dea

  9. says:

    The Pope and Mussolini is David Kertzer's fascinating account of the secret dealings between the Italian dictator and Pius XIThese were uncomfortable bedfellows Mussolini had shown no signs in his early career of wanting to revive the Catholic Church's fortunes in fact as he started off as a socialist the opposite was true His fasc

  10. says:

    CAVEAT As I reread this piece it struck me that people might interpret it as anti Catholic It's certainly negative as far as Vatican City and its corrupt operations during the time period involved is concerned which is true to the book under review However like most American Catholics I see a huge gulf between my Catholic parish lif

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review ✓ E-book, or Kindle E-pub Ï David I. Kertzer

Analiza źródeł niezbędnych do napisania niniejszej książki zajęła autorowi siedem lat Przejrzał dwadzieścia pięć tysięcy stron dokumentów Przebrnął przez niezliczone tomy odtajnionej korespondencji włoskich francuskich brytyjskich amerykańskich i niemieckich dyplomatów przeczytał dzienniki i pamiętniki I jak sam przyznał – opracowanie tych wszystkich materiałów i „rozwiązanie starych łamigłówek było zadaniem wprost porywającym” The Pope and Mussolini is David Kertzer s fascinating account of the secret dealings between the Italian dictator and Pius XIThese were uncomfortable bedfellows Mussolini had shown no signs in his early career of wanting to revive the Catholic Church s fortunes in fact as he started off as a socialist the opposite was true His fascist lackeys had also spent much time beating up and terrorising hostile priestsPius XI also showed no great personal enthusiasm for Il Duce and his cult of personality but he was prepared to compromise himself and the Church in exchange for a boost to its fortunesMussolini created the Vatican State to give the Pope extra status and revived the Roman Catholic Church s role in civic life from the courtroom to the classroom Protestant books were suppressed girls in gym lessons were made to dress demurelyIn return Mussolini got than just silent compliance from the Catholic Church Its backing gave his regime legitimacy and helped Mussolini entrench himself as dictatorAnd there is clear evidence of direct collaboration between Church and regime against what both saw as common enemies Protestants communists and crucially and shamefully JewsPius XI did have ualms about some of the antisemitic laws Mussolini pursued He had deep misgivings about the pagan inclined Hitler but he still saw the Jewish community as a threat to the Catholic Church His opposition was sophistry than substanceAnd Kertzer shows there was a significant strand of antisemitism in the higher echelons of the Church Indeed the Church was far from wedded to democracy Mussolini s authoritarianism had an appeal to a clergy that believed in absolute obedienceThis is a meticulously researched and fast paced account with a large cast of characters Kertzer lays to rest the suggestion that Pius XI bravely resisted fascism There were signs towards the end of his life that private disuiet about antisemitic laws would turn to public opposition But we ll never know how that might have ended as his death brought the election of Pius XII an even complicit prop for the FascistsThe uality of Kertzer s research justifies his Pulitzer It s not his fault that the recent sex abuse scandals has reduced the shock value of a Catholic establishment prepared to put the interests of the Church ahead of what s morally right

characters The Pope and Mussolini

The Pope and Mussolini

Trudno o bardziej odmienne postaci Pius XI spędził większość życia pochylony nad średniowiecznymi manuskryptami Benito Mussolini był zanurzonym w teraźniejszości podżegaczem awanturnikiem i antyklerykałem Istniały jednak i podobieństwa Obaj mieli wybuchowy temperament obaj domagali się bezwarunkowego posłuszeństwa i wywoływali u The Pope PDF swoich podwładnych strach obaj uważali komunizm za zagrożenie I z czasem docenili znaczenie współprac Kertzer shows how the relationship between Pope Pius XI and Benito Mussolini played into the rise of Fascism and anti Semitism Mussolini demanded absolute power and the pope demanded a dominant position for the Church Both men were headstrong adversaries who cooperated as needed Both sacrificed principle to achieve their goals Their fears desires deals and surrounding intrigues would weigh heavily on Italy s fate particularly that of the nation s JewsMussolini started his political career as an anti Catholic socialist As a supporter of Italy s entry into WWI he broke with the socialists He fought in the war and joined fascist groups in 1917 By 1919 he was leading the fascists and formed the National Socialist Party in 1921 Succeeding by violence and intimidation in a politically fractured Italy his forces marched into Rome in 1922 He demanded and was appointed prime minister by the king He was now the most powerful person in ItalyThe Vatican was still living in the past It still laid claim to the Papal States taken from it in 1870 when Italy formed The dispute meant no formal relation existed between the Vatican and Italy In fact the Pope would not venture into Rome which he did not recognize as part of Italy Achille Ratti a cardinal from a humble background in a small northern Italian town became Pope Pius XI in 1922 He led a conservative Catholic view that was strongly anti socialist and anti Semitic On top of traditional Catholic demonizing Jews were now held responsible for bolshevism which Pius XI considered the Church s biggest threatWhile skeptical of Mussolini s faith Pius XI saw him as way to expand the church s influence Mussolini likewise saw the church as a way to cement his own They began an escalating series of uid pro uos Mussolini granted the Church power freedom and praise in exchange for the Church s support for him All the while Mussolini s goons took out dissidents Catholic or otherwise Pius XI dismissed these attacks on anti fascists in his Church as the work of thugs outside of Mussolini s control The pope would not criticize Mussolini since he felt the Church needed him to secure its position in Italy Behind the scenes through envoys there was a constant tug of war between Mussolini and the Pope for power but the pope was playing Mussolini s game Unknown to the pope Mussolini had placed spies throughout the Vatican hierarchy Their daily reports to Mussolini covered Vatican internal discussions and even included accounts of pederasty committed by senior Vatican officials In 1929 the Holy See and Mussolini signed the Lateran Accords The Vatican gave up its claim to the Papal States legitimizing Italian authority in Rome in exchange for recognition as the state religion of Italy and cash Pius XI was happy and Mussolini thrilled as his power continued to be validated But soon after Mussolini made official statements that implied the Church s rights were at his Italy s pleasure The pope was angered but did little While the pope rarely consulted his staff key members were ardent Mussolini supporters who intervened on Mussolini s behalf when possible Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli who became Vatican Secretary of State in 1930 was a staunch anti bolshevist and anti Semite who was particularly deferential to Mussolini Pacelli would become Pope Pius XII upon Pius XI s deathMussolini wanted no doubt as to who was really in charge Mussolini uickly stopped political activity in any part of the Church unless it favored him The Church s rights were held to be strictly spiritual When Mussolini shut down the Catholic Action youth group in 1931 Pius XI was furious He got Mussolini to let the group operate but only with the stipulation that all Catholic Action youth leaders had to meet Mussolini s approval Anyone critical of him would be dismissed Mussolini was turning the Church youth group into his support group In 193233 Pius XI would expend his political capital pressing Mussolini to prohibit Immodestly dressed women to stop Protestant groups from organizing and to closely monitor Communists and JewsIn 1933 Hitler became the new chancellor of Germany Pius XI at first was skeptical of him One in three Germans was Catholic Hitler needed Catholic support Germany s ambassador to the Vatican conveyed Hitler s backing for the Church to the pope But most of all Hitler s denunciations of bolshevism pleased Pius XI German Catholic bishops had unanimously denounced the Nazis The Vatican instructed the bishops to cease opposition to Hitler The pope s order undercut the opposition Catholic Center Party which then uickly fell apart The Vatican signed a concordat with the Nazi government guaranteeing the Church s rights in Germany in exchange for Catholic support The Nazi s program of forced sterilization of defectives was announced about the same time which the Church ignored though clearly a violation of Church doctrine Hitler did as he pleased and began closing Catholic schools Hitler played the pope just as Mussolini had The pope blamed anti clerical Nazi elements not Hitler himself Just as with Mussolini Vatican Secretary of State Pacelli was much deferential to Hitler than was the pope Catholic conspiracy theories about Jews such as their comprising the leadership of Russia were widely published in official Church periodicals Thus Hitler s anti Semitic harangues for example that 98% of Soviet leadership was Jewish made perfect sense to Germany s large Catholic population In fact Jews comprised 6% of the Russian leadership in the 1920 s and less thereafterIn 1935 Mussolini invaded Ethiopia Pius XI was against the war but as usual fell in line Pacelli and other top Vatican staff supported Mussolini s colonialist war The war was essentially genocide Villages were firebombed villagers wiped out with poison gas and their water supplies poisoned Most of the free world including FDR and Americans were horrified The Church made sure its publications in America backed Mussolini targeting the large Italian American community Italian victory in 1936 changed Mussolini His ego overwhelmed him He now believed himself invincibleThe Spanish civil War in 1936 drew Mussolini and Hitler closer together greatly disturbing Pius XI The Pope now saw that half of Catholic schools in Germany had been closed Pacelli however still considered the communist threat paramount He visited the US and met with FDR two days after the US election FDR later said that Pacelli reminded him of Father Coughlin Pacelli warned FDR of a Communist takeover of the US Pacelli s real reason for the visit was to shore up his personal support from the four American cardinals Pius XI was old and failing and Pacelli wanted to be and would be his successor By 1937 almost all Catholic schools in Germany had been closed and the Nazi s began immorality trials of Catholic priest monks and nuns for sexual deprivation Finally the Vatican reacted At the reuest of German bishops an encyclical watered down to not mention the Nazis by name was issued critical of German violations of their concordat It was read in German churches and it infuriated Hitler Hitler closed Catholic publishing houses and seized diocesan files which many bishops burned in advance The Vatican now opposed Hitler but still strongly supported MussoliniIn March 1938 Hitler took over Austria Austria s Cardinal Innitzer lauded the F hrer and pledged his allegiance to the German cause Mussolini who had wanted Austria under Italian control said nothing The pope was stunned by both men s response Pius XI forced Innitzer to publicly retract his support of the German takeover Pacelli as usual tried to make sure that neither the Germans or Mussolini were too upset by the Pope s positionIn May 1938 Hitler visited Rome for five days Mussolini arranged huge celebrations Swastikas were everywhere He and Hitler paraded through the city They swore their allegiance to each other as supporters including many clergy cheered In July 1938 Mussolini began his anti Semitic campaign The Church and fascists differed on their definition of Jews Mussolini aped Hitler His anti Semitism was race based The Church s anti Semitism was based on religion and culture The pope wanted Jews to convert If they would become good practicing Catholics they were part of the fold and no longer a problem Church doctrine did not embrace the concept of race There was only one humanity The pope decried what he called extended nationalism angering Mussolini The practical issue was marriage between converted Jews and other Catholics Mussolini s laws outlawed this but the pope believed the Church controlled marriage as agreed to in the concordat of 1929 Again the pope s instincts gave in to his staff eager to kowtow to the powerful Mussolini In August a secret deal was reached giving Church approval to Mussolini s anti Semitic laws in exchange for a promise that Catholic Action members could remain Fascist party membersIn September 1938 Jewish teachers in Italy at all levels were fired and Jewish children were prohibited from attending public school The Church did not object even though the Pope gave a speech in which he lamented the new laws The Vatican hierarchy excised those remarks from published versions of the speech Pacelli and other Vatican officials again did everything to avoid friction with the Fascist government by covering up or modifying anything controversial the pope said or wrote Some important Church officials such as Jesuit Superior General and virulent anti Semite Wlodimir Ledochowski actually believed Mussolini s new laws were right although they did not want to appear to criticize the pope One prominent ardent Mussolini supporter was Milan Cardinal Schuster who at first publically praised the new laws But amazingly on November 13 1938 four days after Kristallnacht stunned the world he spoke out excoriating the laws and characterizing Mussolini as a Hitler neophyte embracing a pagan creed He instantly went from Fascist favorite to Fascist target Many northern Italians wondered if one day Hitler s racism would target them But Schuster s change of heart had no impact The laws were not changed and Mussolini s staff worked with its key ally in the Vatican Pacelli to mute any outburst from the popeIn February 1939 the 82 year old Pius XI passed away Lying on his desk was a speech and an encyclical he planned to issue on the upcoming 10th anniversary of the Lateran accords Months before he had asked an American Jesuit priest Father LaFarge to help define the Catholic position on racism The pope had been impressed with LaFarge s writing on black racial issues in America The result was the encyclical that opposed racism Ledochowski as LaFarge s superior read it first and made every effort to delay it water it down and keep it from the pope The pope got it anyway but his untimely death meant it would never be issued Pacelli made sure it would disappear entirely He had the Vatican Printing Office destroy all copies of Pius XI s speech Pacelli became Pius XII Only after Pacelli s death in 1958 would Pope John XXIII release parts of Pius XI s planned speech and only in 2006 was the full text disclosedUnder Pius XII the Vatican became conciliatory and actively sought to improve relations with Mussolini and the Nazis Pius XII removed the head of Catholic Action which Mussolini had long wanted but an obstinate Pius XI would not do Even years later when Mussolini fell from power and was arrested Pius XII did not challenge the anti Semitic lawsThis revealing Pulitzer Prize winner is the result of seven years research into Fascist Italy and Vatican archives that only became available ten years ago Kertzer dug deep producing a history rich in detail and convincing in its depiction of the relationship between the Church and Mussolini His portrayal of Pius XI shows a conflicted unsophisticated pontiff easily handled by his subordinates His account challenges long held beliefs about the role of Cardinal Pacelli as Vatican Secretary of State Pacelli better known as Pope Pius XII is being considered for sainthood Kertzer gives us a compelling study for those with an interest in the Church s role in anti Semitism and the consolidation of power by the Fascist and Nazi regimes

review ✓ E-book, or Kindle E-pub Ï David I. Kertzer

Y Papież i Mussolini to opowieść o dwóch ludziach którzy w tym samym roku sięgnęli po władzę i zmienili bieg XX wieku Kiedy w roku otwarto tajne archiwa Watykanu a cenne źródła ujrzały światło dzienne możliwe było wreszcie wyjaśnienie co połączyło te dwie postaci i jakie były tego skutki Obrazu dopełniają grube teczki faszystowskiej policji dokumentujące tajemnice i skandale opisane w raportach donosicieli działających za murami Watykanu Italian history and the rise of fascism is not a part of history with which I am familiar Author Kertzer s massive research reveals the manipulations Pope Pius XI and Mussolini engaged in to bring Italy into WWII on the side of the Nazis The early 20th century brought the two together over their great fear of communismliberalismJewsProtestantismMasons just to name a few I am neither a Catholic nor a participant of an organized religion so I was amazed at the layers of Catholic government and the Vatican s ruling class The back biting and in fighting resembled a middle school student council Pope Pius eventually found himself on a runaway train unable to redirect the scourge of anti semitism and at the end of his life he felt deep failure of his dealings Hopefully his belief in forgiveness led him through the pearly gatesThis is not a light read but extremely detailed and thorough The Italian names can be very confusing and by the end I completely lost the ability to keep them straight But for those who are interested in historical fact this book is supreme Deserving of it s Pulitzer