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Tragicomedia de Calisto y Melibea

La loca Calisto y PDF #197 pasión por Melibea hija de un rico mercader lleva al joven Calisto a romper todas las barreras morales y a aliarse con una vieja alcahueta y hechicera Celestina El amor es pues una pasión ue lo Tragicomedia de PDF or mueve todo Lo Two pages from an early edition In 1499 appeared the first 16 acts of the Tragicomedia de Calisto y Melibea now better known as La Celestina a work that Juan Goytisolo called Spanish literature s most audacious and subversive work in his excellent article celebrating the 500th anniversary of the text s publication First published anonymously then again with the author s name in acrostics it was eventually revealed that the author was the still uite young Fernando de Rojas c 146576 1541 a son of Jews who had been forcibly converted to Christianity In 1502 appeared a version with 21 acts and further additions In fact many of the subseuent new editions during the author s lifetime had additions of some sort or other There is no wonder then that as of 2002 there has been no critical edition of this text in Spanish since it is apparently difficult to decide in all cases which additions are Rojas and which have been added by the publishers I came upon this title in Steven Moore s very informative survey The Novel An Alternative History Beginnings to 1600 It appears however that in Spain everyone reads this along with Lazarillo de Tormes and Don uixote Though the text presents itself in acts and many consider it to be a failed play for the stage others including Moore view the work as the first novel in dialogue Goytisolo refuses to pigeonhole the text and I ll go along with that choice Whether or not the 5 acts added to the original in 1502 were written by Rojas or were the fabrication of another these acts are not of the same uality and badly unbalance and de center the text in my opinion though I can understand how the original might seem a bit abrupt to some Of the many translations into English of this work I read the one by Lesley Byrd Simpson which presents only the text of the original edition without the interpolated 5 acts the Argumentos and the other additions It reads beautifully as I shall illustrate below I also looked through the recent translation by Peter Bush mentioned earlier in order to compare the translations and to read the added 5 acts to decide for myself about their uality for Bush has incorporated most but not all of the additions to the original text However I also read the second original text in a heavily annotated edition apparently intended for students in Spain in which nearly all the additions made during Rojas lifetime are included and extensive footnotes explain background and obsolete usage and words So three different versions of the text uite aside from the language Let s turn to the common core of the texts The initial set up of attempted seduction of the young and lovely Melibea by the intemperate Calisto and the subseuent firm rejection provides a standard frame within which to carry out the main business of the work the reduction of most of the ideals of aristocratic and Christian Spain to absurdity in the corrosively ironic gaze of the lower classes Moreover most of the characters representing the lower classes are rogues of the first water self interest money and a smooth line of bullshit rule the day These two elements shape the comedic side of the tragicomedy As entertaining as that is it fades to shadow when the main character arrives the aged worldly vain greedy procuress and witch consummate liar and manipulator and former prostitute Celestina who undertakes to bend Melibea to Calisto s will by magical means after a significant gift of course What a character No wonder the original title fell into desuetude and was replaced by her name I d be willing to conjecture that this is an early example of a character occurring to an author and then taking over completely As for the tragedy is it a spoiler to reveal that all the main characters die Innocent or not Dead I think it s likely that Rojas bitterness was not directed merely at the oligarchy and its ideology I cannot close this review without praising the uniue style in which Celestina is written which gave me even pleasure than the characters did First the pure dialogue at least in the first version is tightly woven with proverb after proverb most taken from the treasure chest of the Spanish people but no few are lifted from classic authors like Plutarch Sometimes the proverbs are very apt but many times they are non seuiturs recalling to me the modern novels whose characters speak solely in free association clich s Every act whether considered or completed is commented on at length by the characters using vast arrays of proverb And when Rojas winds up and throws his fast ball what arrives at the plate are the kinds of effervescent coruscating lists to be found in some of the better modern authors works Some are lists for the sake of seeing rare and incongruous words side by side such as this tiny excerpt from a two page romp The oils she used for the face you would hardly believe storax jasmine lemon melon seed benjamin pistachio pine nut grape seed jubejube nut fennel lupine vetch carilla and chickweed But others are lists in poetic flight such as this excerpt from the last act of the original version When I was young I thought the world was ruled by order I know better now It is a labyrinth of errors a frightful desert a den of wild beasts a game in which men run in circles a lake of mud a thorny thicket a dense forest a stony field a meadow full of serpents a river of tears a sea of miseries effort without profit a flowering but barren orchard a running spring of cares a sweet poison a vain hope a false joy and a true pain Both in Simpson s words I think Bush s version of this passage is relatively weak I very much enjoyed this work one which engendered a host of followers la literatura celestinesca and with which Cervantes was well acuainted when he wrote his masterpiece nearly a century later In fact Cervantes called Rojas work divine in the introduction to the first part of his tale of the Knight of La Mancha Come to think of it Sancho Panza a servant commenting freely on the absurdities of his employer Don uixote is definitely a celestinesue touch A somewhat modified version of Goytisolo s essay serves as the Introduction to the recent Penguin edition of Peter Bush s new translation of Celestina La Celestina Editorial Castalia Madrid 2002 According to Goytisolo Rojas father was burned at the stake by the Inuisition and he and the other conversos were constantly disadvantaged and persecuted by the true believers Goytisolo sees La Celestina as an expression of Rojas bitterness towards the oligarchy and its ideology uite possibly Rating

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N y a la muerte Reflejo de una sociedad conflictiva La Celestina obra a caballo entre la novela y la obra dramática abre las puertas a nuevos aires y tiempos nuevos y su autor Fernando de Rojas crea con ella uno de los grandes mitos de la literatura universa La Celestina sits between the last gasps of the Middle Ages and the first breaths of the Renaissance Written for the most part by a 25 year old graduate of the Universidad de Salamanca it also stands slightly behind Don uijote in Castile s novelistic rankings It is still over 500 years after its composition in 1499 1502 a masterpiece of Western literature Arguably it also could lay claim according to Otis Green in his Spain and the Western Tradition to being the first novel or truly dramatic work produced in modern Europe The story is the universal one of passionate love won and lost Calixto a young nobleman in hot pursuit of his falcon finds himself in the garden of Pleberio and eyeball to eyeball with Pleberio s daughter Melibea Instantly smitten he declares himself mesmerized by her beauty and unworthy of her love she agrees telling him in no uncertain words to bug offCalixto returns to his home where his servant not at all oblivious to his master s mental aberration Ottis Green proposes a solution to what at this point is unreuited love Loco est este me amo says Sempronio Enters the old bawd Celestina whom Calixto employs to soften Melibea s heartCelestina described as a bearded lady is a piece of work In addition to running a brothel she is a purveyor of drugs and creams that cure all imaginable defects and conditions She knows magic and is in touch with the supernatural She is also a seamstress a cover for her other arts but also a talent that allows her to repair maidenheads by sewing small bladders into the broken membrane She sold the French ambassador one of her wenches three times a virgin Ostensively a seamstress she is able to gain entrance into any number of places monasteries and homes And using that ability she visits Melibea learning that Melibea too in spite of her initial claims to the contrary is eually smitten with CalixtoIt would seem that love among the nobility and the lower classes is never easy even in the XIV Century Calixto overjoyed with Celestina s success rewards her with a gold chain But Calixto s servants believe that they too should share in the reward When Celestina refuses to share they kill her They in turn captured before they can escape are summarily beheaded by the lawBut Calixto is essentially oblivious to the fates of the underclass He and Melibea begin a month long affair a nightly amorous encounter in the garden of Melibea s parents with little though to things beyond their own pleasures However in leaving one night Calixto falls off of the wall and dies instantly Melibea distraught kills herself by jumping off a towerOn one level the author purports his work to be a lesson on the wages of sin But here sin is not sex but unbridled self interest Vividly reflected in La Celestina is the social world of a new a modern age wrapped in an emerging capitalism Fernando de Rojas moves his characters in an urban world were new social constructs are emerging to define the relationships between and among the classes Notes Juan Goytisolo in his preface to Peter Bush s excellent English translation Pleberio s distraught invective against the deceitful fairground of life after he sees his daughter fall to her death take sic on a disturbing slant when read in the light of the ceaseless decline of democratic humanist values of solidarity in today s global village shop or casino where the only law is the immediacy of profit Does human life exist outside the laws of the market or is it just one product for sale It would seem that the world of La Celestina is no different than our world today and the answer to Goytisolo s uestion is the same in 2011 as it would have been in 1499

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S señores aman según los cánones del amor cortés y los criados se mueven en el inframundo de los prostíbulos pero tanto unos como otros sienten el gozo y placer de vivir y este amor lujurioso los de Calisto y PDF #8608 conducirá a todos a la destrucció Free download in Spanish available at Project Gutenberg


10 thoughts on “Tragicomedia de Calisto y Melibea

  1. says:

    Two pages from an early edition In 1499 appeared the first 16 acts of the Tragicomedia de Calisto y Melibea now

  2. says:

    For about a month they have been having sex clandestinely at night inside Malibea's room right under the noses of her unsuspecting parents To get to her room Calisto has to climb up a steep ladder carried to the site every night by his servants During this last night after three exhausting but blissful encores Calisto heard a commotion outside Rushing to check what it was suspecting his servants may be in trouble he slipped off the ladde

  3. says:

    You antic ass You've made me laugh which I did not intend to do again this yearCelestina is every bit the great classic that its reputation among Spaniards suggests It's bold funny cynical and at the same time affecting provoking a strange mix of derision and sympathy Along the way it scorns most of society's values as well as its hypocrisies

  4. says:

    Free download in Spanish available at Project Gutenberg

  5. says:

    What could I say about one of the major Spanish classics as La Celestina Well I think that this book is certainly one of these novels that a big part of Spanish people have read In my case I did it in school time and despite the years that have passed I still remember the story perfectly La Celestina is a novel that despite its age is still entertaining fun and easy to read Romances misunderstandings and especially a funny intelligence h

  6. says:

    Surprisingly funny in the beginning very tragic at the end but always very wise A novel written in dialogue and built up in acts and scenes similar to a drama La Celestina is the first European novel It is not widely known today which is a pity actually I don't uite understand the low rating probably from people who had to read in school because it is very readable and entertainingview spoilerThe book ends very dramatic

  7. says:

    Read many years ago but planning to re read for the Classics Club It's come to mark a beautiful and long gone time in my life high school years reading with the class a small group of students with an alcoholic teacher we loved and hated at the same time a lonely woman who did love good books

  8. says:

    One of the must reads of Spanish literature this book represents both the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Renaissance in Spain The character of Celestina is the basis of one of the three literary types from Spanish literature along with Don uijote and Don Juan I've taught it multiple times and am always amazed by ho

  9. says:

    “La Celestina” sits between the last gasps of the Middle Ages and the first breaths of the Renaissance Written for the most part by a 25 year old graduate of the Universidad de Salamanca it also stands slightly behind “Don uijote” in

  10. says:

    This play was written by Fernando Rojas in the year 1499 It is a wonderful play about love and tragedy Calisto fell in love with Melibea who was a beautiful young woman who would inherit a great fortune from her father Calisto was ri

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