PDF Simple Justice The History of Brown v Board of Education and Black America's Struggle for Euality ¿ Richard Kluger
E mindful of the fact that we need to eep the classroom library stocked with books that represent the diversity of the American experience c the student is doing well academically and to my nowledge has not encountered any overt incidences of discrimination Instead the response I got was When she first started at this district we checked to see if she lived in public housing but she does notThe most frightening aspect of this statement is the word we which suggests that this response to the arrival of African American student is endorsed at the institutional level The other frightening thing about this is the assumption the supervisor a white person would not object to it My immediate reply was polite and succinct In this town most people are professionals I expect her parents are in finance law or medicine As a professor of education I want to understand how a graduate student might have learned this So I went back to the textbook and reread it The textbook provides statistics on disproportionality in special education The over representation of African American students in certain IDEA disability groups is attributed to social economic circumstances No mention is made of the history of discrimination African Americans have had to overcome When presented in isolation the statistics lead pre service teachers to believe that the playing field is even that all students have to do is work a little harder to eep up The reality is for students from historically underrepresented groups there are still hurdles for them to overcomeThis book outlines the history social biographical and legal behind the Supreme Court case Brown vs Board of Education Topeka Kansas The landmark case which made school segregation illegal It illustrates how the case was not an isolated event which resulted in a common sense judgement but a long hard fought battle This book is a must for all educators It demonstrates how the deep economic divides in this country were legally sanctioned No matter how hard working your grandparents or great grandparents worked they could not overcome those barriers Meanwhile other groups were saving so they could set their children on a college bound path In terms of leveling the playing field generations of time were lost This book teaches us that the least we can do as educators is present complete information Data without context can be as dangerous as no data at all It was a long one but I m glad I got through this important book that documented the history and legacy of Brown v Board of EducationSome exceptional uotesIn their zeal to slash handouts to those struggling with poverty the new conservative policymakers who would run the federal government for the next dozen years never bothered to analyze the potential cost benefits of sustained rehabilitation programs for the nation s needy ie whether a well directed helping hand in the form of preschool learning assistance job training drug rehabilitation low cost business loans and maximum school desegregation might not dramatically reduce US taxpayers bills for jobless benefits aid to dependent children drug abuse crime control and medical treatment for the poorAmericans simply seem dedicated to exploring outer space than to saving their inner cities we lavish our wealth on outsized vehicles and state of the art weaponry rather than on improving young minds or caring for the public health The result has been an extreme maldistribution of the nation s wealth that outrages remarkably few Americans Only an unpredictable wind shift toward altruism seems likely to power a new national consensus that identifies government as neither enemy nor savior but as a useful tool when put prudently to the task As long as those put in charge of it profess to hate it government cannot be the prime mover in the pursuit of justice My ancestry is entirely Southern on both my father s and my mother s side Several relatives fought for the Confederacy and a great grandfather raised cotton and was a cotton broker in Memphis Tennessee after the end of the Civil War When it came to pushing forward the American ideal of liberty and justice for all I m sorry to say my family was nowhere to be foundI recently visited Memphis where the National Civil Rights Museum is built into the Lorraine Motel where Martin Luther King Jr was illed fifty years ago I also visited a private museum called Slave Haven in the home of an unusual white man who helped slaves to escape on the underground railroad In the news recently was the opening of the National Memorial for Peace and Justice that features a powerful exhibit on the lynching of black men in AmericaI hope everyone can visit these places Nobody should leave them with a sense of complacency Slavery is gone That ended The American Horror Story part 1 but it was succeeded by part 2 which could be said to have ended with the Supreme Court decision around which this book is built Brown vs Board of Education of Topeka Kansas Could we say there is a part 3 still going on today what with police executions of blacks chronicled with videos for all to see and a hugely disproportionate number of blacks in prison Too many schools remain segregated simply by the fact
that whites have either rushed to leave the cities have enrolled their ids in private whites have either rushed to leave the cities have enrolled their Black Heart, Red Ruby kids in private or home school theirids That this segregation exists is no fault of the effort at school desegregation that Simple Justice is about but for every legal success there is a way to get around itRichard Kluger has written a document Contained within the 800 pages is a thorough look at the plight of the Negro the primary term used for black Americans throughout the book written in 1975 from the start of an unwilling arrival before American independence The account is often shocking freuently revealing always educational It takes a good third of the text to provide the truly awful background information necessary as a foundation for understanding all the work that needed to be done to begin to remedy what was so acceptable to white AmericaThe reader will find out about Radical Reconstruction immediately after the Civil War when the southern states did all they could to eep blacks in a state of slavery even if officially it was outlawed An irate Congress clamped down on blatant Southern moves to eep the boot of the white man on the black man s neck passing the 13th 14th and 15th Amendments to the Constitution but as could be expected interest in doing the right thing flagged rapidly as Northern financial interests saw the benefits of allowing Southern racism free rein in exchange for the opening up of a new territory from which to profitA Supreme Court ruling in 1896 Plessy vs Ferguson made separate but eual facilities for blacks on railroads legal and a new frontier of segregation advanced shunning blacks from all manner of services such as restaurants hotels movie theatersand schools Separation was the operative word with euality being ignored The first decades of the 20th century saw the lives of blacks made miserable as white Southerners dreamed up ingenious ways of denying blacks the vote or any New Plant Parent: Learn the Ways of Plant Parenthood kind of decent work and engaged in lynchings with enthusiasmThe author follows the use of black troops in France in WW1 where they realized that there could be euality between the races He tells of Booker T Washington s philosophy of the black man working his way up on his own to take his place with whites something whites accepted with glee as it put no responsibility on the whites for what they had done to erect every hurdle they could think of toeep the Negro downThe start by whites of all black Howard University the creation mostly by whites of the NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People the defiant writing of WEB DuBois the position of US presidents on racial issuesit s all here No significant personalities in the struggle over justice black or white are neglected and each gets a generous introduction The reader is never wondering why things happen as they do because of the rich background Richard Lugar provides making sense of every development along the wayReacting to the long history of injustice typified by schools that were segregated a of black intellectuals all connected to Howard University several being attorneys were segregated a handful black intellectuals all connected to Howard University several being attorneys the NAACP Legal Defense Fund headed by Thurgood Marshall go out to build the case that segregation between groups is inherently uneual From this point the author moves into yet another subject the workings of the American justice system and the Supreme Court This book is thick for a reason Simple Justice made me appreciate how shallow and essentially worthless are standard history texts texts that offer what are little than headlines that could hardly do than leave the student of history at a loss for the meaning of what happened in the past and how it connects to the present The guiding principle is to let no school board be offendedIt s unfortunate that the people who most need to Dreaming Me: An African-American Woman's Buddhist Journey know what is in this book are very unlikely to read it and no reading can be effective if there is no motivation to learn what the text has to say In my dream world every police officer wouldnow the story that Richard Lugar tells so well in Simple Justice I doubt anyone would not. – but all of whose passionate devotion proved intense enough to match their missionReading Simple Justice we see how black Americans’ groundswell urge for fair treatment collides with the intransigence of white supremacists in a grinding legal campaign that inevitably found its way to the halls and chambers of the Supreme Court for a final showdown Kluger searches out and analyzes what went on there during the months of hearings and deliberations often behind closed doors laying bare the doubts disagreements and often deeply held convictions of the nine Justices He shows above all how Chief Justice Earl Warren new to the Court but old in the ways of politics achieved the impossible – a unanimous decision to reverse the 58 year old false doctrine of “separate but eual” education for blacks Impeccably researched and elegantly written this may be the most revealing report ever published of America’s highest court at workBased on extensive interviews and both published and unpublished documentary sources Simple Justice has the lineaments of an epic It will stand as the classic study of a turning point in our histor. ExuisiteThis is unuestionably one of the best books I ve ever read and I really cannot imagine how it could be outdone To summarize the book would be unfathomable A description of its scope would inevitably fall short The writing and voice is so clear yet the depth of the material is so great As the subtitle notes Simple Justice is in a way a history of the Supreme Court s decision in Brown v Board of Education But to say it is a history of the case alone risks suggesting that the book covers the legal battle alone Nothing could be further from the truth Or perhaps that s Why try to sum it up myself when the author does a perfect job at the end of the bookExorcism is rarely a pretty spectacle It is freuently marked by violent spasms and protracted trauma and so it has been in the two decades since Brown signaled the beginning of the nation s effort to rid itself of the consuming demons of racismthe bruising post Brown years have clearly marked the onset of the third major stage in the history of black white relations in AmericaDuring the first blacks were openly classified as property and even those who were not held in legal slavery were generally regarded as having been placed on earth to do the bidding of white menThe 13th Amendment technically ended that state of formal subjugation in 1865 The second stage promoted the colored man to the category of marginal human being evidently of the same species as the white man and technically entitled to the same rights and protections but an unfortunately witless lecherous odoriferous sort whose very presence was an eyesore as the nation reached for greatness Denied learning denied all but the most primitive vocational training denied access to the political and social institutions that functioned as a giant ethnic melting pot for the European peoples who stocked American shores the Negro hobbled into the 20th Century as a reviled scapegoat for the frustrated a target for the sadistic and an inconvenient reminder of past sins and current indifference It seemed only natural that he should have been segregated as a pollutant Not until the Supreme Court acted in 1954 did the nation acknowledge that it had been blaming the black man for what it had done to him His sentence to 2nd class citzenship had been commuted the uest for meaningful euality euality in fact as well as law had begun It is the business of melodrama than social analysis to suggest that a single moment or event can change the course of history It is not suggested here that Brown alone was such a moment or event The Court s decision might aptly be called the cresting wave of a tidal movement unleashed by the great economic earthuake of 1929 Not until then did the nation seriously acknowledge that its most sacred obligation went beyond the protection of capital to the well being of its citizens People were no longer infinitely discardable and the New Deal of Franklin Roosevelt became the first national administration to treat black Americans as recognizably human Worldwide conflicts with fascism and Communism added to the country s consciousness that its colored citizens had not been precisely beneficiaries of the social order a system that tolerated so much human spillage was plainly in need of repair Full employment and an extended economic boom unlike any the world had ever nown contributed to the growth of tolerance in post war America there was work for all though no one was handling cushy jobs to colored people The good times reached into the South which now embraced full scale industrialization and lost much of its economic and psychological isolation from the rest of the country The electronic communications revolution advanced the national homogenization process Radio television the movies and the phonograph brought an insistent mass culture of shared sights sounds and attitudes to every region every social class every income level and every ethnic category in the land If the common denominator was not very high and did as much to imbed as uproot racial stereotypes all this cross fertilization reduced much of what provincialism remained in the country and gave wide exposure to the achievements of such Negroes as Ralph Bunche Richard Wright Louis Armstrong and Jackie Robinson Evidence was accumulating that black Americans had much to offer their country if given the opportunity to grow up in decent surroundings and make their way like everyone else Revulsion over incidents of racial violence grew The clergy longtime protector of Jim Crow religion in much of the nation turned moral as well as pious and began to call for racial euality and act in ways to help achieve it It was in this receptive soil that the Supreme Court planted the seed of Brown Every colored American new that Brown did not mean he would be invited to lunch with the Rotary the following week It meant something basic and important It meant that black rights had suddenly been redefined black bodies had suddenly been reborn under a new law Blacks value as human beings had been changed overnight by the declaration of the nation s highest court At a stroke the Justices had severed the remaining cords of de facto slavery The Negro could no longer be fastened with the status of official pariah No longer could the white man look right through him as if he were invisible in the title words of Ralph Ellision s stunning 1952 novel Invisible Man No would he be a grinning supplicant for the benefactions and discards of the master class no would he be a party to his own degredation He was both thrilled that the signal for demise of his caste status had come from on high and angry that it had taken so long and first exacted so steep a price in suffering R KlugerThe timeline1 13th Amendment 1865 outlaws slavery2 14th Amendment 1866 guarantees right of all individuals to eual protection and due process3 Civil Rights Cases States are not empowered to prevent private discrimination even by businesses said to be open to the public at large4 Plessy v Ferguson 1896 SCOTUS rules separate but eual permissible under the 14th Amendment Segregation is deemed legal5 Cummings v Richmond County Board of Ed 1899 SCOTUS upheld segregated school policies 6 Berea College v Kentucky 1908 SCOTUS ruled that states could impose segregation in public as well as private enterprises Triggered Jim Crow laws across the South7 Gong Lum v Rice 1927 SCOTUS supported Mississippi s classification of Martha Lum as colored and thus reuired to attend Negro school8 Murray v Maryland 1937 Maryland Court of Appeals supported the
court s order to have the University of Maryland law school admit Donald Murray as eual facilities not available to him9 Gaines v Canada 1938 SCOTUS ordered University of Missouri law school integrated under Plessy doctrine since the state had no eual law school for blacks10 Alston v School Board of the City of Norfolk 1940 US Court of Appeals 4th Circuit ruled illegal pay discrimination based on color11 Sipuel v Oklahoma State Board of Regents 1948 SCOTUS issued per curiam opinion that instructed Oklahoma to provide a legal education for Ada Sipuel in compliance with 14th Amendment A State had to offer something that passed for a school to meet separate but eual test and it had to do so promptly but it didn t have to integrate12 Sweatt v Painter 1950 SCOTUS issued Unanimous Decision That Black decision that black be admitted to the University of Texas law school on grounds the colored school failed to offer eual educational opportunity Separate but eual still lawful but the euality had to be real or the separation was Constitutionally intolerable13 McLaurin v Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education 1950 SCOTUS ordered the restriction placed on black plaintiff removed as they handicapped his puruist of effective graduate instruction If separate facilities are not provided no one can suffer restrictions or harassments at a biracial school14 Brown v Board of Education of Topeka Briggs v Elliott South Carolina Davis v County School Board of Prince Edward County Virginia Gebhart v Belton DE and Bolling v Sharpe Wash DC 1954 Does segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race even though the physical facilities and other tangible factors may be eual deprive the children of the minority group of eual education opportunities We believe that it does SCOTUS This scholarly book is in no way a fast and light read Even though the title reads Simple Justice the achieving justice part turned out to be not so simple for black americans after all But what an eye opener this book was concerning the trials and tribulations of Afro American Blacks to be treated eually under the law Looking back now the shenanigans Southern Separatists went to try to uphold separate but eual policy laws seem so ludicrous that they appear to be to uphold separate but eual policy laws seem so ludicrous that they appear to be bunch of bigoted racist nincompoops although proving uite humiliating for the american negro with degradation the main gist not eualization The amount of hours the author Richard Kluger spent to complile and write this material is mind boggling to me but well worth it for the amount of nowledge it provides My eyes at times were spinning in my head like a slot machine s spinning stepper reels with all the names dates cases and institutions li. Simple Justice is generally regarded as the classic account of the US Supreme Court’s epochal decision outlawing racial segregation and the centerpiece of African Americans’ ongoing crusade for eual justice under lawThe 1954 Supreme Court ruling in the case of Brown v Board of Education brought centuries of legal segregation in this country to an end It was and remains beyond uestion one of the truly significant events in American history “probably the most important American government act of any ind since the Emancipation Proclamation” in the view of constitutional scholar Louis H Pollak The Brown decision climaxed a long torturous battle for black euality in education making hard law out of vague principles and opening the way for the broad civil rights upheavals of the 1960s and beyondSimple Justice is the story of that battle Richard Kluger traces the background of the epochal decision from its remote legal and cultural roots to the complex personalities of those who brought about its realization The result is a landmark work of popular history graceful and fascinatingly detailed the panoramic account of a str. .
lower court s order to have the University of Maryland law school admit Donald Murray as eual facilities
StedNow let me just take a turn on my own soapbox because injustice in any way shape or form just rankles me FYI 20 percent of the Neanderthal genome survives in modern humans of non African ancestry wwwsci newscomothersciencesanthro narrowed down to belonging to Caucasian Whites and Indo Asian heritage of North European ancestry Well well well it seems a little bit of interbreeding nookie went on berween Neanderthals and Homo Sapiens producing a hybrid Oh come on now let s face it a warm body is a warm body epecially for Homo Sapiens moving up north from the southern parts of Europe and North Africa which had a far warmer climate A substantial amount of Whites during the post Civil War era through the 1950 s and beyond considered themselves superior to Blacks including unfortunately even today Just as a devil s advocate I wonder how many of these North Ancestry European Whites had or have the Neanderthal genome in their DNA After all homo neanderthalensis is considered inferior to homo sapiens as a species since we as homo sapiens survived and they did not so wouldn t these Whites in essence be inferior to Afro American Blacks Unfortunately DNA is not visually discernible to the naked eye and can or could not be used as a counterpoint Yes Hitler s views on the Aryan race as a superior race may not be so accurate and may just be up for debate Aryan wasn t a term invented by the Nazis As commonly used by scientists of the era it meant the same as Indo European That is Germanic people like Germans English or Scandinavians Celtic people like Irish or Bretons Romance people like Italians Spanish or French Slavic people like Poles and Russians Greeks and Romans Persians and northern Indians were all counted as Aryan wwwuoracomWhich countries were co My suggestion for White Supremists of today is to get your DNA tested before you huff and puff about how superior you are because you just might have some Neanderthal in your blood This is just my own ponderings on just how stupid the arguments concerning superiority are no matter if it concerns race creed gender sexual preference age or even species This is an excellent book Definitely going on my favorites of all time read list It s so good in fact that this work should be reuired reading for high school students in social studiesgovernment civics class It explores the following ideasA concise look at slavery in America up to the civil war It continues with a look at reconstruction and segregation especially focused on the southern states A biography of the prominent lawyers at the NAACP involved with the brown lawsuits including Thurgood Marshall I didn t really now much about justice Marshall and it was a bonus The brown lawsuit was actually than one case and each case is explained in detail and how they were combined by the Supreme Court for the purpose of the suit A look at all of the justices involved with the brown decision And as a bonus an extra chapter on the effects of brown up til 2005 when an additional chapter was added Excellent excellent book I m not sure if someone recommended this book to me or I found it somewhere but I can recommend it enough First off I have to say that the book is just too damn long At almost 800 pages it manages to recount in mind numbing detail the daily travails of the five lower court cases that were combined on appeal to become the Brown v Board of Education case that appeared before the Supreme Court in 1952 It also constantly interrupts the narrative of each of these cases to recount at length the biography of almost everyone involved in the cases from second tier researchers to assistant counsels Its just too muchThat said if any case warrants this sort of intense scrutiny it is Brown v Board This decision not only permanently reshaped American political and cultural life it inaugurated the entry of the Supreme Court into the smallest interstices of all American life for better and for worse The justices at the time especially Felix Frankfurter seemed to understand its completely unprecedented a dirty word in judicial proceedings nature but felt compelled by the magnitude of the injustices brought to light by the NAACP and by the Supreme Court s gradual chipping away at whites legal dominance from Gaines v Canada in 1938 which forced states to provide in state law school education for both whites and blacks if segregation existed to McLauren v Oklahoma Board of Regents in 1950 which ended segregation inside an Oklahoma law school that exiled the one black student to a desk outside of classes or in ridiculous roped off areas in the middle of the class The long road to Brown is ultimately a story that demands the sort of comprehensive telling Kluger gives it The first part of the book is actually a surprisingly original and fascinating look at the previous 150 years of judicial rulings on civil rights that belongs in anyone s library and provides the essential underpinning of the Brown case And although the detailed local stories in the final cases can become tedious they also provide remarkable insight into local politics and race relations in the 1950s For instance Luger discusses the ten year reign of Kenneth McFarland the school
in Topeka out of which the Brown case emerged McFarland unified all the school board s power in his own hands beginning in 1941 and brought in compliant black administrators and teachers who feared that integration might hurt their job prospects Kluger shows how this fear was pervasive among black teachers who constituted the largest part of the black middle class in this period At the integrated high school in the city McFarland forced blacks and whites to have separate sports teams with different Color And Separate Student Assemblies And Even Prohibited Mixing uniforms and separate student assemblies and even prohibited mixing the Such were the complicated local politics of segregation outside the deep SouthAt the heart of the book though is the amazing story of Howard Law School Once the Harvard trained Charles Houston took charge of the decrepit school in 1930 it didn t even have a library he transformed it into one of the most dynamic and activist centers of law in the whole country Bringing on board people like Spotswood Robinson and Thurgood Marshall the school became tightly associated with the legal defense wing of the NAACP set up on a shoestring in 1939 for tax purposes and with their help began challenging segregation laws across the country Houston and his proteges once hardly given the time of day by white counsels made numerous successful appearances before the Supreme Court that culminated in Brown v Board barely 10 years later It is an almost fairy tale story of a small band of misfit dreamers who succeeded in changing the course of world history It is truly incredibleAnd it is such incredible stories that make this book so fascinating Though I often got tired of its maunderings and details I m extremely glad I read it I typically resent having reading assigned for a class Especially when the professor assigns upwards of 150 pages a week which eats into my personal reading time But I did not mind in the slightest with Simple Justice It was well written intriguing and provided great insight to what it takes to strategically position an important issue in the court system so that the Supreme Court takes it up at the right time and addresses the exact uestion that you want addressedThe scope of this book was hundreds of years It started with what life was like for black people in pre Civil War slavery moved through the Civil War and the political reasons that led to the the ending of slavery and the attempt to provide rights through the 13th 14th and 15th amendment and then it addressed the amazing ways these rights were still withheld through social norms and traditio Kluger s book is a comprehensive compilation of the historical court case Brown V Board of Education and the Supreme Court decision that outlawed segregation The author also covers the history of slavery in the United States and life after the Civil War for the black people He describes the injustice degradation and abuse to the black peopleKluger also covers the twenty years it took for states to fully respond to the Court s directives to desegregate schools The author also reviews in great detail the 13th 14th and 15th amendments Kluger shows how the law has served to create and alter who we are as a societyThe book is well written and meticulously researched It is a lengthy book at 822 pages It is a detailed history of the treatment of blacks in this country The author reminds us that freedom without resources is simply a different form of slavery Kluger introduces the reader to pivotal black attorneys such as Thurgood Marshall Charles Houston and William Hastie This Last year I was supervising a graduate student not enrolled in the college where I work full time who was teaching in an affluent predominantly white neighborhood In her class there were a handful of students of color I asked the graduate student what she thought it would feel like to be on the only African American student in her class I was expecting this to be a simple uestion which would elicit one of the following responses a it must be hard not seeing anyone who looks like you b we ar. Uggle for human dignity in process since the birth of the nationHere is the human drama told in all its dimensions of the many plaintiffs men women and children variously scared or defiant but always determined who made the hard decision to proceed – bucking the white power structure in Topeka Kansas; braving night riders in rural South Carolina; rallying fellow high school students in strictly segregated Prince Edward County Virginia – and at a dozen other times and places showing their refusal to accept defeatHere too is the extraordinary tale told for the first time of the black legal establishment forced literally to invent itself before it could join the fight then patiently assembling in courtroom after courtroom a body of law that would serve to free its people from thralldom to unjust laws Heroes abound some obscure like Charles Houston who built Howard Law School into a rigorous academy for black lawyers and the Reverend JA DeLaine the minister teacher who despite bitter opposition organized and led the first crucial fight for educational euality in the Jim Crow South others like Thurgood Marshall justly famous.superintendent in topeka